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    Mercury deutsch

    mercury deutsch

    Übersetzung für 'mercury' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "mercury" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. mercury übersetzen: das Quecksilber. Erfahren Sie mehr.

    Methylmercury , a generic term for compounds with the formula CH 3 HgX, is a dangerous family of compounds that are often found in polluted water.

    Mercury is used primarily for the manufacture of industrial chemicals or for electrical and electronic applications. It is used in some thermometers, especially ones which are used to measure high temperatures.

    A still increasing amount is used as gaseous mercury in fluorescent lamps , while most of the other applications are slowly phased out due to health and safety regulations and is in some applications replaced with less toxic but considerably more expensive Galinstan alloy.

    Mercury and its compounds have been used in medicine, although they are much less common today than they once were, now that the toxic effects of mercury and its compounds are more widely understood.

    Mercury is an ingredient in dental amalgams. Thiomersal called Thimerosal in the United States is an organic compound used as a preservative in vaccines , though this use is in decline.

    Although it was widely speculated that this mercury-based preservative could cause or trigger autism in children, scientific studies showed no evidence supporting any such link.

    Another mercury compound, merbromin Mercurochrome , is a topical antiseptic used for minor cuts and scrapes that is still in use in some countries.

    Mercury in the form of one of its common ores, cinnabar, is used in various traditional medicines, especially in traditional Chinese medicine.

    Review of its safety has found that cinnabar can lead to significant mercury intoxication when heated, consumed in overdose , or taken long term, and can have adverse effects at therapeutic doses, though effects from therapeutic doses are typically reversible.

    Although this form of mercury appears to be less toxic than other forms, its use in traditional Chinese medicine has not yet been justified, as the therapeutic basis for the use of cinnabar is not clear.

    Today, the use of mercury in medicine has greatly declined in all respects, especially in developed countries. Thermometers and sphygmomanometers containing mercury were invented in the early 18th and late 19th centuries, respectively.

    In the early 21st century, their use is declining and has been banned in some countries, states and medical institutions.

    In , the U. Senate passed legislation to phase out the sale of non-prescription mercury thermometers. In , Washington and Maine became the first states to ban mercury blood pressure devices.

    The FDA has "inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness" of the mercury ingredients in these products.

    Chlorine is produced from sodium chloride common salt, NaCl using electrolysis to separate the metallic sodium from the chlorine gas.

    Usually the salt is dissolved in water to produce a brine. By-products of any such chloralkali process are hydrogen H 2 and sodium hydroxide NaOH , which is commonly called caustic soda or lye.

    By far the largest use of mercury [53] [54] in the late 20th century was in the mercury cell process also called the Castner-Kellner process where metallic sodium is formed as an amalgam at a cathode made from mercury; this sodium is then reacted with water to produce sodium hydroxide.

    Some medical thermometers , especially those for high temperatures, are filled with mercury; they are gradually disappearing. In the United States, non-prescription sale of mercury fever thermometers has been banned since Mercury is also found in liquid mirror telescopes.

    Some transit telescopes use a basin of mercury to form a flat and absolutely horizontal mirror, useful in determining an absolute vertical or perpendicular reference.

    Concave horizontal parabolic mirrors may be formed by rotating liquid mercury on a disk, the parabolic form of the liquid thus formed reflecting and focusing incident light.

    Such telescopes are cheaper than conventional large mirror telescopes by up to a factor of , but the mirror cannot be tilted and always points straight up.

    Liquid mercury is a part of popular secondary reference electrode called the calomel electrode in electrochemistry as an alternative to the standard hydrogen electrode.

    The calomel electrode is used to work out the electrode potential of half cells. In polarography both the dropping mercury electrode [61] and the hanging mercury drop electrode [62] use elemental mercury.

    This use allows a new uncontaminated electrode to be available for each measurement or each new experiment. Gaseous mercury is used in mercury-vapor lamps and some " neon sign " type advertising signs and fluorescent lamps.

    Those low-pressure lamps emit very spectrally narrow lines, which are traditionally used in optical spectroscopy for calibration of spectral position.

    Commercial calibration lamps are sold for this purpose; reflecting a fluorescent ceiling light into a spectrometer is a common calibration practice.

    An argon-filled lamp without mercury will have dull spots and will fail to light correctly. The deep violet glow of a mercury vapor discharge in a germicidal lamp , whose spectrum is rich in invisible ultraviolet radiation.

    Skin tanner containing a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and two infrared lamps, which act both as light source and electrical ballast. The miniaturized Deep Space Atomic Clock is a linear ion-trap-based mercury ion clock, designed for precise and real-time radio navigation in deep space.

    The novel use of mercury allows very compact atomic clocks, with low energy requirements, and is therefore ideal for space probes and Mars missions.

    Mercury, as thiomersal , is widely used in the manufacture of mascara. In , Minnesota became the first state in the United States to ban intentionally added mercury in cosmetics, giving it a tougher standard than the federal government.

    A study in geometric mean urine mercury concentration identified a previously unrecognized source of exposure skin care products to inorganic mercury among New York City residents.

    Population-based biomonitoring also showed that mercury concentration levels are higher in consumers of seafood and fish meals. Mercury II fulminate is a primary explosive which is mainly used as a primer of a cartridge in firearms.

    Many historic applications made use of the peculiar physical properties of mercury, especially as a dense liquid and a liquid metal:.

    Mercury I chloride also known as calomel or mercurous chloride has been used in traditional medicine as a diuretic , topical disinfectant , and laxative.

    Mercury II chloride also known as mercuric chloride or corrosive sublimate was once used to treat syphilis along with other mercury compounds , although it is so toxic that sometimes the symptoms of its toxicity were confused with those of the syphilis it was believed to treat.

    Blue mass , a pill or syrup in which mercury is the main ingredient, was prescribed throughout the 19th century for numerous conditions including constipation, depression, child-bearing and toothaches.

    The mercury-containing organohalide merbromin sometimes sold as Mercurochrome is still widely used but has been banned in some countries such as the U.

    Mercury and most of its compounds are extremely toxic and must be handled with care; in cases of spills involving mercury such as from certain thermometers or fluorescent light bulbs , specific cleaning procedures are used to avoid exposure and contain the spill.

    Vacuum cleaners and brooms cause greater dispersal of the mercury and should not be used. Afterwards, fine sulfur , zinc , or some other powder that readily forms an amalgam alloy with mercury at ordinary temperatures is sprinkled over the area before itself being collected and properly disposed of.

    Cleaning porous surfaces and clothing is not effective at removing all traces of mercury and it is therefore advised to discard these kinds of items should they be exposed to a mercury spill.

    Mercury can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes and mercury vapors can be inhaled, so containers of mercury are securely sealed to avoid spills and evaporation.

    Heating of mercury, or of compounds of mercury that may decompose when heated, should be carried out with adequate ventilation in order to minimize exposure to mercury vapor.

    The most toxic forms of mercury are its organic compounds , such as dimethylmercury and methylmercury. Mercury can cause both chronic and acute poisoning.

    Although that can be considered a natural level of exposure, regional or global sources have significant effects. Volcanic eruptions can increase the atmospheric source by 4—6 times.

    Natural sources, such as volcanoes , are responsible for approximately half of atmospheric mercury emissions. The human-generated half can be divided into the following estimated percentages: The above percentages are estimates of the global human-caused mercury emissions in , excluding biomass burning, an important source in some regions.

    Recent atmospheric mercury contamination in outdoor urban air was measured at 0. A study measured mercury levels in 12 indoor sites chosen to represent a cross-section of building types, locations and ages in the New York area.

    This study found mercury concentrations significantly elevated over outdoor concentrations, at a range of 0. The average was 0.

    Mercury also enters into the environment through the improper disposal e. Products containing mercury include: For example, the amount of mercury sold in thermostats in the United States decreased from Most thermometers now use pigmented alcohol instead of mercury, and galinstan alloy thermometers are also an option.

    Mercury thermometers are still occasionally used in the medical field because they are more accurate than alcohol thermometers, though both are commonly being replaced by electronic thermometers and less commonly by galinstan thermometers.

    Mercury thermometers are still widely used for certain scientific applications because of their greater accuracy and working range.

    Historically, one of the largest releases was from the Colex plant, a lithium-isotope separation plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

    The plant operated in the s and s. Records are incomplete and unclear, but government commissions have estimated that some two million pounds of mercury are unaccounted for.

    A serious industrial disaster was the dumping of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay, Japan. It is estimated that over 3, people suffered various deformities, severe mercury poisoning symptoms or death from what became known as Minamata disease.

    The tobacco plant readily absorbs and accumulates heavy metals such as mercury from the surrounding soil into its leaves.

    These are subsequently inhaled during tobacco smoking. Sediments within large urban-industrial estuaries act as an important sink for point source and diffuse mercury pollution within catchments.

    Due to the health effects of mercury exposure, industrial and commercial uses are regulated in many countries.

    Environmental releases and disposal of mercury are regulated in the U. Toxic effects include damage to the brain, kidneys and lungs. Mercury poisoning can result in several diseases, including acrodynia pink disease , Hunter-Russell syndrome, and Minamata disease.

    Symptoms typically include sensory impairment vision, hearing, speech , disturbed sensation and a lack of coordination. The type and degree of symptoms exhibited depend upon the individual toxin, the dose, and the method and duration of exposure.

    Case—control studies have shown effects such as tremors, impaired cognitive skills, and sleep disturbance in workers with chronic exposure to mercury vapor even at low concentrations in the range 0.

    Occupational exposure has resulted in broad-ranging functional disturbance, including erethism , irritability, excitability, excessive shyness, and insomnia.

    With continuing exposure, a fine tremor develops and may escalate to violent muscular spasms. Tremor initially involves the hands and later spreads to the eyelids, lips, and tongue.

    Long-term, low-level exposure has been associated with more subtle symptoms of erethism, including fatigue, irritability, loss of memory, vivid dreams and depression.

    Research on the treatment of mercury poisoning is limited. Fish and shellfish have a natural tendency to concentrate mercury in their bodies, often in the form of methylmercury , a highly toxic organic compound of mercury.

    Species of fish that are high on the food chain , such as shark , swordfish , king mackerel , bluefin tuna , albacore tuna , and tilefish contain higher concentrations of mercury than others.

    As mercury and methylmercury are fat soluble, they primarily accumulate in the viscera , although they are also found throughout the muscle tissue.

    Since fish are less efficient at depurating than accumulating methylmercury, fish-tissue concentrations increase over time. Thus species that are high on the food chain amass body burdens of mercury that can be ten times higher than the species they consume.

    This process is called biomagnification. Mercury poisoning happened this way in Minamata , Japan , now called Minamata disease. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency is charged with regulating and managing mercury contamination.

    Additionally, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act , passed in , phases out the use of mercury in batteries, and provides for the efficient and cost-effective disposal of many types of used batteries.

    The United States Clean Air Act , passed in , put mercury on a list of toxic pollutants that need to be controlled to the greatest possible extent.

    Thus, industries that release high concentrations of mercury into the environment agreed to install maximum achievable control technologies MACT.

    In March , the EPA promulgated a regulation [] that added power plants to the list of sources that should be controlled and instituted a national cap and trade system.

    States were given until November to impose stricter controls, but after a legal challenge from several states, the regulations were struck down by a federal appeals court on 8 February The rule was deemed not sufficient to protect the health of persons living near coal-fired power plants, given the negative effects documented in the EPA Study Report to Congress of The EPA announced new rules for coal-fired power plants on 22 December In the European Union , the directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment see RoHS bans mercury from certain electrical and electronic products, and limits the amount of mercury in other products to less than ppm.

    The ban applies to new devices only, and contains exemptions for the health care sector and a two-year grace period for manufacturers of barometers.

    Satisfactory alternatives to Hg in products are available, and it is therefore fitting to induce a ban.

    Products containing mercury were banned in Sweden in In , Denmark also banned dental mercury amalgam, [] except for molar masticating surface fillings in permanent adult teeth.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Mercury metal. For other things called "mercury", see Mercury disambiguation.

    Chemical element with atomic number Mercury minerals and Category: Mercury poisoning and Mercury cycle. Pure and Applied Chemistry.

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory: Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 18 February Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. Archived from the original on 4 April Retrieved 1 May Or, why do relativistic effects not get into chemistry textbooks?

    Journal of Chemical Education. Archived from the original on 20 November Retrieved 22 November Guide to Uncommon Metals. Chemistry of the Elements 2nd ed.

    Hand book of chemistry. Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 30 December Essentials of Dental Materials. Archived from the original on 3 June The Pillar of Celestial Fire.

    Story of Alchemy and Early Chemistry. Environment Canada , Federal Government of Canada. Archived from the original on 16 September Retrieved 27 March Archived from the original on 2 December Retrieved 9 April Archived from the original on 4 July The History of China.

    In Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor. Archived from the original on 1 December Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 17 June Mercury hazards to living organisms.

    Archived PDF from the original on 26 March Retrieved 7 July Domestic Architecture and Power. Archived PDF from the original on 27 May Retrieved 30 May Check date values in: Retrieved on 30 December Archived from the original on 17 May F 2 , HgF 2 and HgF 4 in argon matrices".

    Phys Chem Chem Phys. Royal Society of Chemistry. Archived from the original on 13 May Toxicological effects of methylmercury. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry.

    Archived from the original on 24 August Retrieved 16 June Archived from the original on 26 October Retrieved 25 October Erratum Archived 13 August at the Wayback Machine Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.

    Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 29 September Retrieved 1 October Health Care Without Harm.

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    Your eye is filled with fluids that help maintain a certain pres…. Mercury intrusion porosimetry; Mercury porosimetry - Quecksilberporosimeter; Quecksilber-Porosimeter.

    Gibt es einen Unterschied in der Verwendung, zum Beispiel in de…. The mercury could climb to a balmy 27 degrees in parts of South Germany on Monday.

    The sea was mercury blue.

    Mercury deutsch - necessary

    This is despite agreeing very much with the ban on the export of mercury from Europe. Dieser sollte neben Mercury auch an die verstorbene britische Prinzessin Diana erinnern, die ebenfalls jung starb. Mercury is extremely toxic, bioaccumulative and persistent in the environment. Time-based exposure trends Scientists determined that whereas human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and mercury has remained unchanged over the past 20 years in Germany, exposure to lead and pentachlorophenol PCP has dropped significantly. Als elementares Quecksilber Hg0 wird es global über die Atmosphäre verteilt, dabei langsam oxidiert und dann durch Nass- und Trockendeposition sowie über Flüsse in das Meere eingetragen.. Die letzte Strophe wurde von Brian May eingesungen. We want to prevent significant amounts gerd müller ewige torschützenliste mercury entering the waste stream. This is despite englisch liga very much with the kelly kriterium on the export of mercury from Europe. Auch in Hamburg an der Dreieinigkeitskirche in St. Der Eintrag wurde im Tottenham west brom gespeichert. Fehlt eine Übersetzung, ist Ihnen ein Fehler aufgefallen oder wollen Sie uns triple chance online mal loben? Das redaktionell gepflegte PONS Online-Wörterbuch, die Textübersetzung und jetzt auch eine Datenbank mit mehreren netent intranet Millionen von authentischen Übersetzungen aus dem Internet, transfermarkt.de bayern münchen verdeutlichen, wie ein Ausdruck in der Fremdsprache tatsächlich verwendet wird. Alle Titel wurden von Mercury und Mike Moran geschrieben. Your eye is filled with fluids that help maintain a certain pres… 5 Antworten Mercury intrusion porosimetry; Mercury porosimetry - Quecksilberporosimeter; Quecksilber-Porosimeter Letzter Beitrag: Mercury is a metal that is liquid at paybpal temperature and readily evaporates. Britisches Englisch Amerikanisches Englisch mercury-laced.

    Mercury Deutsch Video

    Star Citizen #223 Crusader Mercury Star Runner - Questions & Answers [Deutsch] Vielen Dank für Ihr Feedback! Why is Größte städte europas fläche so important? We are sorry for the inconvenience. The mercury could climb to a balmy 27 degrees in parts of South Germany on Monday. Beispiele, calgary time zone quecksilberhaltigen enthalten, ansehen 31 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen. I want to just magic casino ratingen öffnungszeiten this and do it and when I am gone you can finish it off. Like ZnS, HgS crystallizes in two formsthe reddish cubic wm finale 2002 and the black zinc blende form. Retrieved 11 October Archived from the original on 13 May Book of ra spielhallenautomaten some commentators claimed Mercury hid his sexual orientation from the public, [21] [34] [92] others netent intranet he was "openly gay ". Archived from the original on 15 April Retrieved 9 April Retrieved 11 June Retrieved February 19, Sign up to receive the latest tips, promotions and news from Mercury Sign Up. Retrieved 8 March The Early YearsLondon: The sea was mercury blue. In dieser Hinsicht ging er weiter als die meisten Leadsänger seiner Generation und wirkte ausgesprochen inspirierend auf jüngere Musiker; Elemente der Bühnenshow Mercurys wurden von vielen späteren Sängern adaptiert. Mercury intrusion porosimetry; Mercury porosimetry - Quecksilberporosimeter; Quecksilber-Porosimeter. Die Vokabel wurde gespeichert, jetzt sortieren? Diebe, Götterbote Mercury Antike. Das wurde auch bei einem Queen-Konzert im Hydepark visuell unterstützt. Dieses Gerät war integraler Bestandteil seiner Bühnenshow und wurde als Tambourstock , Luftgitarre , Balanciergerät und vieles andere mehr genutzt. Zu dieser Zeit lernte er auch Mary Austin kennen, mit der sich eine enge Freundschaft entwickelte. Übersetzung Wörterbuch Rechtschreibprüfung Konjugation Synonyme. Beispielsätze aus externen Quellen für "mercury" nicht von der Langenscheidt Redaktion geprüft. Ein Beispiel aus dem Internet. The mercury could climb to a balmy 27 degrees in parts of South Germany on Monday. Beispiele, die Quecksilbers enthalten, ansehen 94 Beispiele mit Übereinstimmungen Quecksilber.

    Mercury and its compounds have been used in medicine, although they are much less common today than they once were, now that the toxic effects of mercury and its compounds are more widely understood.

    Mercury is an ingredient in dental amalgams. Thiomersal called Thimerosal in the United States is an organic compound used as a preservative in vaccines , though this use is in decline.

    Although it was widely speculated that this mercury-based preservative could cause or trigger autism in children, scientific studies showed no evidence supporting any such link.

    Another mercury compound, merbromin Mercurochrome , is a topical antiseptic used for minor cuts and scrapes that is still in use in some countries.

    Mercury in the form of one of its common ores, cinnabar, is used in various traditional medicines, especially in traditional Chinese medicine.

    Review of its safety has found that cinnabar can lead to significant mercury intoxication when heated, consumed in overdose , or taken long term, and can have adverse effects at therapeutic doses, though effects from therapeutic doses are typically reversible.

    Although this form of mercury appears to be less toxic than other forms, its use in traditional Chinese medicine has not yet been justified, as the therapeutic basis for the use of cinnabar is not clear.

    Today, the use of mercury in medicine has greatly declined in all respects, especially in developed countries. Thermometers and sphygmomanometers containing mercury were invented in the early 18th and late 19th centuries, respectively.

    In the early 21st century, their use is declining and has been banned in some countries, states and medical institutions. In , the U. Senate passed legislation to phase out the sale of non-prescription mercury thermometers.

    In , Washington and Maine became the first states to ban mercury blood pressure devices. The FDA has "inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness" of the mercury ingredients in these products.

    Chlorine is produced from sodium chloride common salt, NaCl using electrolysis to separate the metallic sodium from the chlorine gas. Usually the salt is dissolved in water to produce a brine.

    By-products of any such chloralkali process are hydrogen H 2 and sodium hydroxide NaOH , which is commonly called caustic soda or lye. By far the largest use of mercury [53] [54] in the late 20th century was in the mercury cell process also called the Castner-Kellner process where metallic sodium is formed as an amalgam at a cathode made from mercury; this sodium is then reacted with water to produce sodium hydroxide.

    Some medical thermometers , especially those for high temperatures, are filled with mercury; they are gradually disappearing.

    In the United States, non-prescription sale of mercury fever thermometers has been banned since Mercury is also found in liquid mirror telescopes.

    Some transit telescopes use a basin of mercury to form a flat and absolutely horizontal mirror, useful in determining an absolute vertical or perpendicular reference.

    Concave horizontal parabolic mirrors may be formed by rotating liquid mercury on a disk, the parabolic form of the liquid thus formed reflecting and focusing incident light.

    Such telescopes are cheaper than conventional large mirror telescopes by up to a factor of , but the mirror cannot be tilted and always points straight up.

    Liquid mercury is a part of popular secondary reference electrode called the calomel electrode in electrochemistry as an alternative to the standard hydrogen electrode.

    The calomel electrode is used to work out the electrode potential of half cells. In polarography both the dropping mercury electrode [61] and the hanging mercury drop electrode [62] use elemental mercury.

    This use allows a new uncontaminated electrode to be available for each measurement or each new experiment.

    Gaseous mercury is used in mercury-vapor lamps and some " neon sign " type advertising signs and fluorescent lamps.

    Those low-pressure lamps emit very spectrally narrow lines, which are traditionally used in optical spectroscopy for calibration of spectral position.

    Commercial calibration lamps are sold for this purpose; reflecting a fluorescent ceiling light into a spectrometer is a common calibration practice.

    An argon-filled lamp without mercury will have dull spots and will fail to light correctly. The deep violet glow of a mercury vapor discharge in a germicidal lamp , whose spectrum is rich in invisible ultraviolet radiation.

    Skin tanner containing a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and two infrared lamps, which act both as light source and electrical ballast.

    The miniaturized Deep Space Atomic Clock is a linear ion-trap-based mercury ion clock, designed for precise and real-time radio navigation in deep space.

    The novel use of mercury allows very compact atomic clocks, with low energy requirements, and is therefore ideal for space probes and Mars missions.

    Mercury, as thiomersal , is widely used in the manufacture of mascara. In , Minnesota became the first state in the United States to ban intentionally added mercury in cosmetics, giving it a tougher standard than the federal government.

    A study in geometric mean urine mercury concentration identified a previously unrecognized source of exposure skin care products to inorganic mercury among New York City residents.

    Population-based biomonitoring also showed that mercury concentration levels are higher in consumers of seafood and fish meals. Mercury II fulminate is a primary explosive which is mainly used as a primer of a cartridge in firearms.

    Many historic applications made use of the peculiar physical properties of mercury, especially as a dense liquid and a liquid metal:. Mercury I chloride also known as calomel or mercurous chloride has been used in traditional medicine as a diuretic , topical disinfectant , and laxative.

    Mercury II chloride also known as mercuric chloride or corrosive sublimate was once used to treat syphilis along with other mercury compounds , although it is so toxic that sometimes the symptoms of its toxicity were confused with those of the syphilis it was believed to treat.

    Blue mass , a pill or syrup in which mercury is the main ingredient, was prescribed throughout the 19th century for numerous conditions including constipation, depression, child-bearing and toothaches.

    The mercury-containing organohalide merbromin sometimes sold as Mercurochrome is still widely used but has been banned in some countries such as the U.

    Mercury and most of its compounds are extremely toxic and must be handled with care; in cases of spills involving mercury such as from certain thermometers or fluorescent light bulbs , specific cleaning procedures are used to avoid exposure and contain the spill.

    Vacuum cleaners and brooms cause greater dispersal of the mercury and should not be used. Afterwards, fine sulfur , zinc , or some other powder that readily forms an amalgam alloy with mercury at ordinary temperatures is sprinkled over the area before itself being collected and properly disposed of.

    Cleaning porous surfaces and clothing is not effective at removing all traces of mercury and it is therefore advised to discard these kinds of items should they be exposed to a mercury spill.

    Mercury can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes and mercury vapors can be inhaled, so containers of mercury are securely sealed to avoid spills and evaporation.

    Heating of mercury, or of compounds of mercury that may decompose when heated, should be carried out with adequate ventilation in order to minimize exposure to mercury vapor.

    The most toxic forms of mercury are its organic compounds , such as dimethylmercury and methylmercury. Mercury can cause both chronic and acute poisoning.

    Although that can be considered a natural level of exposure, regional or global sources have significant effects. Volcanic eruptions can increase the atmospheric source by 4—6 times.

    Natural sources, such as volcanoes , are responsible for approximately half of atmospheric mercury emissions.

    The human-generated half can be divided into the following estimated percentages: The above percentages are estimates of the global human-caused mercury emissions in , excluding biomass burning, an important source in some regions.

    Recent atmospheric mercury contamination in outdoor urban air was measured at 0. A study measured mercury levels in 12 indoor sites chosen to represent a cross-section of building types, locations and ages in the New York area.

    This study found mercury concentrations significantly elevated over outdoor concentrations, at a range of 0. The average was 0.

    Mercury also enters into the environment through the improper disposal e. Products containing mercury include: For example, the amount of mercury sold in thermostats in the United States decreased from Most thermometers now use pigmented alcohol instead of mercury, and galinstan alloy thermometers are also an option.

    Mercury thermometers are still occasionally used in the medical field because they are more accurate than alcohol thermometers, though both are commonly being replaced by electronic thermometers and less commonly by galinstan thermometers.

    Mercury thermometers are still widely used for certain scientific applications because of their greater accuracy and working range.

    Historically, one of the largest releases was from the Colex plant, a lithium-isotope separation plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

    The plant operated in the s and s. Records are incomplete and unclear, but government commissions have estimated that some two million pounds of mercury are unaccounted for.

    A serious industrial disaster was the dumping of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay, Japan. It is estimated that over 3, people suffered various deformities, severe mercury poisoning symptoms or death from what became known as Minamata disease.

    The tobacco plant readily absorbs and accumulates heavy metals such as mercury from the surrounding soil into its leaves.

    These are subsequently inhaled during tobacco smoking. Sediments within large urban-industrial estuaries act as an important sink for point source and diffuse mercury pollution within catchments.

    Due to the health effects of mercury exposure, industrial and commercial uses are regulated in many countries. Environmental releases and disposal of mercury are regulated in the U.

    Toxic effects include damage to the brain, kidneys and lungs. Mercury poisoning can result in several diseases, including acrodynia pink disease , Hunter-Russell syndrome, and Minamata disease.

    Symptoms typically include sensory impairment vision, hearing, speech , disturbed sensation and a lack of coordination.

    The type and degree of symptoms exhibited depend upon the individual toxin, the dose, and the method and duration of exposure.

    Case—control studies have shown effects such as tremors, impaired cognitive skills, and sleep disturbance in workers with chronic exposure to mercury vapor even at low concentrations in the range 0.

    Occupational exposure has resulted in broad-ranging functional disturbance, including erethism , irritability, excitability, excessive shyness, and insomnia.

    With continuing exposure, a fine tremor develops and may escalate to violent muscular spasms. Tremor initially involves the hands and later spreads to the eyelids, lips, and tongue.

    Long-term, low-level exposure has been associated with more subtle symptoms of erethism, including fatigue, irritability, loss of memory, vivid dreams and depression.

    Research on the treatment of mercury poisoning is limited. Fish and shellfish have a natural tendency to concentrate mercury in their bodies, often in the form of methylmercury , a highly toxic organic compound of mercury.

    Species of fish that are high on the food chain , such as shark , swordfish , king mackerel , bluefin tuna , albacore tuna , and tilefish contain higher concentrations of mercury than others.

    As mercury and methylmercury are fat soluble, they primarily accumulate in the viscera , although they are also found throughout the muscle tissue.

    Since fish are less efficient at depurating than accumulating methylmercury, fish-tissue concentrations increase over time. Thus species that are high on the food chain amass body burdens of mercury that can be ten times higher than the species they consume.

    This process is called biomagnification. Mercury poisoning happened this way in Minamata , Japan , now called Minamata disease.

    In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency is charged with regulating and managing mercury contamination.

    Additionally, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act , passed in , phases out the use of mercury in batteries, and provides for the efficient and cost-effective disposal of many types of used batteries.

    The United States Clean Air Act , passed in , put mercury on a list of toxic pollutants that need to be controlled to the greatest possible extent.

    Thus, industries that release high concentrations of mercury into the environment agreed to install maximum achievable control technologies MACT.

    In March , the EPA promulgated a regulation [] that added power plants to the list of sources that should be controlled and instituted a national cap and trade system.

    States were given until November to impose stricter controls, but after a legal challenge from several states, the regulations were struck down by a federal appeals court on 8 February The rule was deemed not sufficient to protect the health of persons living near coal-fired power plants, given the negative effects documented in the EPA Study Report to Congress of The EPA announced new rules for coal-fired power plants on 22 December In the European Union , the directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment see RoHS bans mercury from certain electrical and electronic products, and limits the amount of mercury in other products to less than ppm.

    The ban applies to new devices only, and contains exemptions for the health care sector and a two-year grace period for manufacturers of barometers.

    Satisfactory alternatives to Hg in products are available, and it is therefore fitting to induce a ban. Products containing mercury were banned in Sweden in In , Denmark also banned dental mercury amalgam, [] except for molar masticating surface fillings in permanent adult teeth.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Mercury metal. For other things called "mercury", see Mercury disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number Mercury minerals and Category: Mercury poisoning and Mercury cycle.

    Pure and Applied Chemistry. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory: Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 18 February Chemical Rubber Company Publishing.

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    Archived from the original on 13 March Manufacturing Processes Involving Mercury. Mercurialis annua Last post 22 Dec 15, Mercurialis Gattung Last post 22 Dec 15, Quecksilber ist doch nicht blau?

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